Diversity is strength, even among forests. In a paper published in Nature, researchers led by University of Utah biologist William Anderegg report that forests with trees that employ a high diversity of traits related to water use suffer less of an impact from drought. The results, which expand on previous work that looked at individual tree species’ resilience based on hydraulic traits, lead to new research directions on forest resilience and inform forest managers working to rebuild forests after logging or wildfire.
Surprisingly, says Anderegg, a forest’s hydraulic diversity is the predominant predictor of how well it can handle a drought.
“We expected that hydraulic traits should matter,” he says, “but we were surprised that other traits that a lot of the scientific community have focused on weren’t very explanatory or predictive at all.”
By Alan Duffy
Volatile gases emitted by trees scatter light to increase its availability to leaves.
That “pine-smell” you enjoy during a walk in the woods doesn’t just lighten your mood. It lights the entire forest itself.
Research published in the journal Nature Geoscience Letters, and led by Alexandru Rap of the University of Leeds in the UK, has found that the “smell” of a forest, caused by vast quantities of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), increases the scattering of direct sunlight and allows it to reach the wider plant-canopy.
Illuminating more of the canopy leads to increased overall growth, more than offsetting the substantial cost in creating the volatiles to the plants, that captures an additional 1.23 billion tonnes of carbon each year.
The impact of these BVOCs was estimated in a simulation framework that included a global aerosol model to track their release across different habitats. It also employed a radiation model that changed the resultant sunlight, and a land surface scheme to model the resulting growth. These models have previously been used to estimate the impact of mass burn-offs in the Amazon region.
The modelling allowed researchers to explore the relatively uncertain range of global BVOCs production, as well as their changing impact on plant response – with some regions actually suffering a small decrease in growth.
The greatest impacts were in South America and central Africa, where direct sunlight scattered into an additional 10 watts of diffuse lighting across each square metre. This drove growth which sequestered an additional 0.2 grams of carbon per day per square metre. Taken globally, the growth more than compensated for the decline in certain regions.
By Robinson Meyer
As the consequences of climate change strike across the United States, ecologists have a guiding principle about how they think plants will respond. Cold-adapted plants will survive if they move “up”—that is, as they move further north (away from the tropics) and higher in elevation (away from the warm ground).
A new survey of how tree populations have shifted over the past three decades finds that this effect is already in action. But there’s a twist: Even more than moving poleward, trees are moving west.
About three-quarters of tree species common to eastern American forests—including white oaks, sugar maples, and American hollies—have shifted their population center west since 1980. More than half of the species studied also moved northward during the same period.
These results, among the first to use empirical data to look at how climate change is shaping eastern forests, were published in Science Advances on Wednesday.