Lush and green ancient forest is not what most people imagine when thinking of Russia. But despite living a fast-paced city life, Marianna Muntianu knew the reality all too well.
It was visiting her grandmother that she discovered tall emerald alpine forests with thick canopies, home to abundant mushrooms and berries which they would pick together.
“I saw how beautiful and diverse nature was. Then one very hot year, there were terrible wildfires blazing all over Russia. Smoke covered cities, and people walked the streets wearing masks. The picture was so eerie, and I was devastated that we were losing this beautiful natural heritage.”
The forest fires have not stopped. This year alone, a spate of Siberian wildfires which began in July have since covered 2.6 million hectares, according to the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite imagery and local forestry services.
When she realized that these spaces were not being reforested, Muntianu joined an environmental organization headed in the Kostroma region which straddles the banks of the Volga river, the longest in Europe.
“I discovered a love for tree-planting, for being something of a creator,” she said. “I worked to establish school nurseries, giving lessons on forest reforestation. We planted seedlings in areas of the country badly in need of reforestation. In three years, we planted 330,000 trees.”
But it became obvious to Muntianu that reforestation efforts alone are not enough to combat deforestation. That’s when Muntianu started exploring the idea of virtual reality.
“There are around 1.3 billion people around the world who play computer games—roughly 18 per cent of the global population. Not only is this technology highly relevant, the scope of impact with virtual reality is huge.
“I started thinking about how we can use modern technology to build, not destroy. I started exploring the idea of creating games to benefit both players and our planet.”
Another advantage of gaming is to bring people in cities closer to the realities of environmental destruction which may be happening elsewhere, in remote areas of the country, explained Muntianu.
“Many people live so far away from forests and are not sure how to help, with little free time. I explored more interactive games, then the mobile game ‘Plant the Forest’ was born.”
The educational mobile game combines the virtual world with reality. Players grow their own virtual forest, complete with insects, animals and birds, and in parallel, new forests are planted by volunteers.
Users learn what needs to be done to encourage animals to appear and how to restore the environment step by step. Forestry staff advise which trees to plant where, and provide aftercare.
In warm regions, deciduous species such as oak, poplar and maple are planted. In Siberia, coniferous species like spruce, pine and cedar are grown. Disaster and pest and disease-resilient varieties are also chosen.
Today, more than 4,000 people and 10 companies have planted over 400,000 trees in 17 regions of Russia through ‘Plant the Forest.’
By Dylan Love
Called Forester, this robot uses a technique called “sounding” to help arborists identify sick trees and diagnose them.
After hearing a radio program describe the labor-intensive work of forest pathologists — basically, tree doctors — Maksim Mikhailov had an idea: what if a robot helped collect their data?
Mikhailov is a 16-year-old student at ITMO University, the renowned science and technology institution in St. Petersburg, Russia. As a member of the school’s Youth Robotics Lab, he was perfectly positioned to bring his idea to life. With a full team working on the the project, the robot won the gold medal at last year’s World Robot Olympiad; it can record tree locations within a forest, identify their species, measure the widths of their trunks, and even identify if a tree is healthy or not.
Its name is Forester, and most of its job is to explore forests and hit trees with its mallet. It’s a robotic adaptation of a technique that human tree experts often use, called “sounding,” to help their appraisal of a tree’s health.
“The robot hits a tree and its microphone records the sound,” Mikhailov explained. “Since sick trees have cavities or low wood density in their trunk, they make a sound with a lower overall frequency than that of a healthy tree.” The robot makes use of an algorithm that analyzes the recorded sound to determine if it came from a healthy tree.
Forester also takes a photograph of the tree and feeds the image to a neural network, identifying 12 different species of trees with accuracy better than 90 percent.