By Amy Androff
Could looking through trees be the view to a greener future? Trees replacing the clear pane glass in your windows is not a work of science fiction. It’s happening now.
Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) researcher Junyong Zhu in co-collaboration with colleagues from the University of Maryland and University of Colorado, have developed a transparent wood material that may be the window of tomorrow. Researchers found that transparent wood has the potential to outperform glass currently used in construction in nearly every way.
Their findings were published in the Journal of Advanced Functional Materials in their paper, “A Clear, Strong, and Thermally Insulated Transparent Wood for Energy Efficient Windows.”
While glass is the most common material used in window construction it comes with a costly economic and ecological price.
Heat easily transfers through glass, especially single pane, and amounts to higher energy bills when it escapes during cold weather and pours in when it’s warm. Glass production in construction also comes with a heavy carbon footprint. Manufacturing emissions are approximately 25,000 metric tons per year.
Now, transparent wood is emerging as one of the most promising materials of the future.
Transparent wood is created when wood from the fast-growing, low-density balsa tree is treated to a room temperature, oxidizing bath that bleaches it of nearly all visibility. The wood is then penetrated with a synthetic polymer called polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), creating a product that is virtually transparent.
The Nature Conservancy has begun using a drone to aid its reforestation efforts in northeast Minnesota.
By Cody Nelson and Jiwon Choi
To understand the health of a forest, conservation workers typically hit the ground and survey the land acre by acre.
It can involve trudging through the woods with hiking boots or snowshoes, looking for gaps in the forest canopy that need restoring.
But this summer, the Nature Conservancy’s Minnesota branch found an easier way to survey the large swaths of forest that comprise some of the over 60,000 acres it manages in the state.
The conservancy began using a drone to aid its reforestation efforts in northeast Minnesota. It has helped in several ways from making highly detailed maps to providing flyover video in key areas.
“It’s almost like another staff member,” said Chris Dunham, the nonprofit’s forestry manager. “We’re a small, small forest team here and we can use every advantage we can get.”
While the forest may look quite thick from the bird’s-eye view, the vantage point can be misleading. The nonprofit has estimated hundreds of thousands of acres of North Shore forest is in need of some help.
One of the Nature Conservancy’s focuses in Minnesota is on restoring riparian gaps — or places along rivers and streams in the forest where trees have died or been cut down.
Restoring these gaps is good for preventing erosion into the river, sequestering more carbon in the forest and creating better wildlife habitat.
There’s still ground-truthing to do once the drone footage in hand, Dunham said, “but you can be way more efficient if you’ve already taken a cruise above the trees and know where you’re headed.”
Anthony C. Yu, Hector Lopez Hernandez, Andrew H. Kim, Lyndsay M. Stapleton, Ruben J. Brand, Eric T. Mellor, Cameron P. Bauer, Gregory D. McCurdy, Albert J. Wolff, Doreen Chan, Craig S. Criddle, Jesse D. Acosta, Eric A. Appel
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2019, 201907855; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907855116
Despite strong fire prevention efforts, every year wildfires destroy millions of acres of forest. While fires are necessary for a healthy forest ecology, the vast majority are human-caused and occur in high-risk areas such as roadsides and utilities infrastructure. Yet, retardant-based treatments to prevent ignitions at the source are currently impossible with existing technologies, which are only suited for reactive fire prevention approaches. Here we develop a viscoelastic carrier fluid for existing fire retardants to enhance retention on common wildfire-prone vegetation through environmental exposure and weathering. These materials enable a prophylactic wildfire prevention strategy, where areas at high risk of wildfire can be treated and protected from ignitions throughout the peak fire season.
Polyphosphate fire retardants are a critical tactical resource for fighting fires in the wildland and in the wildland–urban interface. Yet, application of these retardants is limited to emergency suppression strategies because current formulations cannot retain fire retardants on target vegetation for extended periods of time through environmental exposure and weathering. New retardant formulations with persistent retention to target vegetation throughout the peak fire season would enable methodical, prophylactic treatment strategies of landscapes at high risk of wildfires through prolonged prevention of ignition and continual impediment to active flaming fronts. Here we develop a sprayable, environmentally benign viscoelastic fluid comprising biopolymers and colloidal silica to enhance adherence and retention of polyphosphate retardants on common wildfire-prone vegetation. These viscoelastic fluids exhibit appropriate wetting and rheological responses to enable robust retardant adherence to vegetation following spray application. Further, laboratory and pilot-scale burn studies establish that these materials drastically reduce ignition probability before and after simulated weathering events. Overall, these studies demonstrate how these materials actualize opportunities to shift the approach of retardant-based wildfire management from reactive suppression to proactive prevention at the source of ignitions.
Lush and green ancient forest is not what most people imagine when thinking of Russia. But despite living a fast-paced city life, Marianna Muntianu knew the reality all too well.
It was visiting her grandmother that she discovered tall emerald alpine forests with thick canopies, home to abundant mushrooms and berries which they would pick together.
“I saw how beautiful and diverse nature was. Then one very hot year, there were terrible wildfires blazing all over Russia. Smoke covered cities, and people walked the streets wearing masks. The picture was so eerie, and I was devastated that we were losing this beautiful natural heritage.”
The forest fires have not stopped. This year alone, a spate of Siberian wildfires which began in July have since covered 2.6 million hectares, according to the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite imagery and local forestry services.
When she realized that these spaces were not being reforested, Muntianu joined an environmental organization headed in the Kostroma region which straddles the banks of the Volga river, the longest in Europe.
“I discovered a love for tree-planting, for being something of a creator,” she said. “I worked to establish school nurseries, giving lessons on forest reforestation. We planted seedlings in areas of the country badly in need of reforestation. In three years, we planted 330,000 trees.”
But it became obvious to Muntianu that reforestation efforts alone are not enough to combat deforestation. That’s when Muntianu started exploring the idea of virtual reality.
“There are around 1.3 billion people around the world who play computer games—roughly 18 per cent of the global population. Not only is this technology highly relevant, the scope of impact with virtual reality is huge.
“I started thinking about how we can use modern technology to build, not destroy. I started exploring the idea of creating games to benefit both players and our planet.”
Another advantage of gaming is to bring people in cities closer to the realities of environmental destruction which may be happening elsewhere, in remote areas of the country, explained Muntianu.
“Many people live so far away from forests and are not sure how to help, with little free time. I explored more interactive games, then the mobile game ‘Plant the Forest’ was born.”
The educational mobile game combines the virtual world with reality. Players grow their own virtual forest, complete with insects, animals and birds, and in parallel, new forests are planted by volunteers.
Users learn what needs to be done to encourage animals to appear and how to restore the environment step by step. Forestry staff advise which trees to plant where, and provide aftercare.
In warm regions, deciduous species such as oak, poplar and maple are planted. In Siberia, coniferous species like spruce, pine and cedar are grown. Disaster and pest and disease-resilient varieties are also chosen.
Today, more than 4,000 people and 10 companies have planted over 400,000 trees in 17 regions of Russia through ‘Plant the Forest.’
For about a century, the Forest Service has paid people to sit at the top of mountains every summer and watch for smoke. Technology is taking their place, but what is being lost in the transition?
Trimble (TRMB) announced today that it has acquired Canadian-based BOS Forestry, a provider of collaboration, harvesting, production and lumber sale solutions for small- and medium-sized forestry companies. The addition of BOS Forestry emphasizes Trimble’s focus on technologies that address the complete end-to-end ecosystem for forest management, traceability and timber processing. Financial terms were not disclosed.
BOS Forestry’s suite of applications provide simplified processes for scale site, log load, yard inventory, contractor settlement, finished goods sales and distribution. In addition, BOS offers a trade portal that facilitates the collaboration of wood supply stakeholders and brings together an innovative network for buyers and sellers to make more informed decisions and improve fiber productivity by leveraging all aggregated log load data transactions. The integration of BOS Trade into Trimble’s Connected Forest portfolio provides a key component to enable transparency and visibility across the fiber business.
Trimble’s Connected Forest solutions manage the full raw materials lifecycle of planning, planting, growing, harvesting, transporting and processing. The solutions improve decision making at every step—from forest to mill and from land acquisition to product delivery—by combining industry-specialized software and state-of-the-art hardware into solutions for land, forest and fiber management. Trimble offers the most comprehensive supply chain solutions available to the forest industry today.
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. — The hardwood industry adds $17 billion to Indiana’s economy. Since 1898, the hardwood lumber industry has relied on the human eye to detect knots and other and other imperfections as a way of determining the quality of lumber.
Despite some inefficiencies, this form of grading persisted because experts were unable to replicate the process with automation. Today, however, a Purdue University professor is reporting a major development in the industry through a new high-speed scanning system that successfully identifies external and internal wood defects.
The new automation not only shaves the amount of time it takes to grade lumber, it significantly boosts the accuracy, said Rado Gazo, a professor for the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources in Purdue’s College of Agriculture.
The Forest Sector Innovation Fund (FSIF), administered by Forestry South Africa, has developed an innovative decision-making support tool for small scale forestry entrepreneurs and larger, existing timber growers.
The Forestry Enterprise Simulator (ForEntSim) was designed to assist small growers in evaluating the feasibility and profitability of forestry enterprises and activities throughout the rotation length. It is a joint initiative by the Department of Forest and Wood Science at Stellenbosch University, the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research and the Forest Economic Service.
The simulator is an open source web-based application for small growers and entrepreneurs interested in entering the industry and helps them to calculate the net present value, equivalent annual income, land expectation value and internal rate of return of one hectare of plantation based on income and costs. It provides an ex-ante simulation of enterprise ventures to test viability and capital requirements to identify potential improvements that will increase profitability.
BIOFOREVER, a consortium of 14 European companies, has started a demonstration project that converts woody biomass to chemical building blocks.